Interfacial reaction between eutectic Sn-58Bi lead-free solder and electroless Ni-P plating

Fei Li, Chunzhon Liu, Aiping Xian, Jianku Shang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Interfacial reactions between eutectic Sn-58Bi lead-free solder and Cu or electroless Ni-P plating were studied. The joining temperature was 180°C , the aging temperature was 60°C -120°C , and the aging time was 5 to 30 d. The interfacial reaction products determined by SEM, EDAX and XRD are Cu6Sn5 on the solder/Cu interface, and Ni3Sn4 on the solder/Ni-P interface. In addition, there is a P-rich layer between Ni3Sn4 and Ni layer. The growth rate of Cu6Sns is much faster than that of Ni3Sn4. The growth rate of Ni3Sn4 was found to decrease with increasing P content in the electroless Ni-P plating. The kinetics of the intermetallic compound growth follows a parabolic law of time, as controlled by the diffusion mechanism. The apparent activation energies are 90.87 kJ/mol for the growth of Cu6Sn5, 101.43 kJ/mol for Ni3Sn4 on Ni-9%P plating and 117.31 kJ/mol for Ni3Sn4 on Ni-16%P plate, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)815-821
Number of pages7
JournalJinshu Xuebao/Acta Metallurgica Sinica
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Electro-less Ni-P plating
  • Interfacial reaction
  • Intermetallic compound
  • Lead-free solder
  • Sn-Bi alloy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys


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