Interface between Two Immiscible Electrolyte Solutions Electrodes for Chemical Analysis

Henry David Jetmore, Edappalil Satheesan Anupriya, Tanner Joe Cress, Mei Shen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) plays vital roles in various fields, such as neuroscience, environmental science, analytical chemistry, separation, catalysis, and nanoparticle synthesis. ITIES emerges as a unique approach in chemical analysis due to its sensitivity to both redox-active and redox-inactive analytes. Neurotransmitters, metal ions, drug molecules, and other complex molecules such as proteins have been detected using ITIES. The detection of redox-inactive species at the ITIES has opened a door to understanding a wide range of complex systems that are less suited to probing by solid electrodes. In this feature article, we present the history of electrochemistry at the ITIES; charge transfer reactions, thermodynamics, and kinetics at the ITIES; electrode-solution interfacial structure; and a diverse range of applications enabled by ITIES.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16519-16527
Number of pages9
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Issue number48
StatePublished - Dec 6 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry


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