Nutrition and physical activity represent two readily modified behaviors that can have profound impact on the health of older adults. Both poor nutrition and physical inactivity are independent risk factors for most chronic diseases, but when interventions target these lifestyle factors in combination they can have profound benefits for health. Skeletal muscle health is important for several processes that govern disease risk and is important for physical performance. With aging, many people experience a decline in muscle mass and function, which can limit overall health. Here we discuss the most important potential interactions between nutrition and physical activity for health.