Integration of physical and genetic maps in apple confirms whole-genome and segmental duplications in the apple genome

Yuepeng Han, Danman Zheng, Sornkanok Vimolmangkang, Muhammad A. Khan, Jonathan E. Beever, Schuyler S. Korban

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


A total of 355 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed, based on expressed sequence tag (EST) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-end sequence databases, and successfully used to construct an SSR-based genetic linkage map of the apple. The consensus linkage map spanned 1143cM, with an average density of 2.5cM per marker. Newly developed SSR markers along with 279 SSR markers previously published by the HiDRAS project were further used to integrate physical and genetic maps of the apple using a PCR-based BAC library screening approach. A total of 470 contigs were unambiguously anchored onto all 17 linkage groups of the apple genome, and 158 contigs contained two or more molecular markers. The genetically mapped contigs spanned ∼421Mb in cumulative physical length, representing 60.0% of the genome. The sizes of anchored contigs ranged from 97kb to 4.0Mb, with an average of 995kb. The average physical length of anchored contigs on each linkage group was ∼24.8Mb, ranging from 17.0Mb to 37.73Mb. Using BAC DNA as templates, PCR screening of the BAC library amplified fragments of highly homologous sequences from homoeologous chromosomes. Upon integrating physical and genetic maps of the apple, the presence of not only homoeologous chromosome pairs, but also of multiple locus markers mapped to adjacent sites on the same chromosome was detected. These findings demonstrated the presence of both genome-wide and segmental duplications in the apple genome and provided further insights into the complex polyploid ancestral origin of the apple.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5117-5130
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of experimental botany
Issue number14
StatePublished - Oct 1 2011


  • Genetic map
  • Malus×domestica
  • genome duplication
  • physical map
  • segmental duplication
  • simple sequence repeat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Plant Science

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