Integrated knowledge of agreement in early and late English-Spanish bilinguals

Rebecca Foote

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Research suggests that late bilinguals may have persistent difficulties with the automatic access and use of some second language structures because of a lack of underlying integrated knowledge of those structures. In contrast, early bilinguals show advantages in aspects of language use that require this type of automatic knowledge. This study investigated whether early and late English-Spanish bilinguals evidence integrated knowledge of agreement in Spanish by examining their sensitivity to agreement errors while reading for comprehension. The results of a pilot and two experiments indicate that both early and late bilinguals do possess integrated knowledge of subject-verb number agreement and noun-adjective gender agreement in Spanish, although sensitivity to agreement errors interacts with properties of the experimental stimuli.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)187-220
Number of pages34
JournalApplied Psycholinguistics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Psychology(all)


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