Integrated energy optimisation for the cement industry: A case study perspective

Jan Adriaan Swanepoel, Edward Henry Mathews, Jan Vosloo, Leon Liebenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Energy costs play a major role in the cement production process. As much as 60% of total cost is allocated to energy and 18% to the consumption of electrical energy. Historically, energy cost savings were achieved by large infrastructure upgrades. These upgrades are often costly and lead to interruptions in production. In this paper the operation of all the energy intensive components of the cement production process are identified, modelled, integrated and optimised for minimum operational costs while meeting production targets. This integrated approach allows for simulation of the collective effect of individual production components. The system incorporates constraints such as maintenance, production and dynamic energy costs. No published research could be found where these constraints are incorporated into a single operational solution. The system was implemented on four cement plants and a total energy cost saving of 7% was achieved. This highlights the practical significance of an integrated approach to energy cost savings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)765-775
Number of pages11
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
StatePublished - Feb 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Cement plant
  • Energy management system
  • Integrated energy model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


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