Integrated displays and the perception of graphical data

Barry P. Goettl, Christopher D. Wickens, Arthur F. Kramer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Three experiments are presented that apply a principle of compatibility of proximity to the perception of graphical data. These experiments demonstrate that the merits and costs of integral displays relative to separable displays depend in part on the task being performed. Experiment 1 employs a data extrapolation task in which information must be integrated. Here an integral display is found to be superior to a separable display. Experiment 2 employed a data perception task that requires focused attention. This reveals superior performance with separable displays. Experiment 3 employed a multiple cue judgement task in which information integration could be manipulated. Data from Experiment 3 were analysed using the Brunswick lens procedures, and indicated that knowledge of the task structure was influenced by the display type. When selective attention was required, knowledge of the task was superior with separable displays. The results are discussed with reference to the principle of compatibility of proximity, and the implications of the results for the perception of scientific data are noted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1047-1063
Number of pages17
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1991


  • Attention
  • Data display
  • Object display
  • Perception

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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