Instructional Support for Visual Displays: An Updated Literature Review

Jennifer G. Cromley, Runzhi Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Visual displays, such as illustrated web pages, animations, and simulations, can both aid and pose challenges for learners. The first generation of educational research on visuals focused on the basic processes underlying comprehension. A second generation of research tested various instructional supports for visual displays, and this research was summarized by Renkl and Scheiter (2017). The authors of the present article summarize those earlier findings and update the state of the literature to the present day. Trends in more recent findings partially support the recommendations from the previous review, but suggest that much nuance is needed to understand on what learning outcomes, for whom, with what learning content, which technology, and other factors, visual display supports are effective.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalTechnology, Knowledge and Learning
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Design of graphics
  • Diagrams
  • Multiple representations
  • Scaffolding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mathematics (miscellaneous)
  • Education
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications


Dive into the research topics of 'Instructional Support for Visual Displays: An Updated Literature Review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this