All economies are characterized by a degree of interdependence between firms, households, and government; the input–output system of accounts provides a framework for measuring the strength of these linkages. From these accounting systems, an input–output model can be developed to trace the way in which changes in one part of the system affect the whole economy. Most recent developments have placed the input–output accounts within computable general equilibrium and other more integrated models that enable consideration of both supply and demand changes within the economy. Further research has explored dynamic versions of these models as well as their presentation within multiregional frameworks to capture interdependencies over space.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationInternational Encyclopedia of Human Geography
EditorsAudrey Kobayashi
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9780081022955
ISBN (Print)9780081022962
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Backward linkages
  • Computable general equilibrium
  • Forward linkages
  • Interindustry transactions
  • Leontief inverse matrix
  • Multipliers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences


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