Innate immune sensing and activation of cell surface Toll-like receptors

Richard I. Tapping

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The expansion of sensing function by cell surface Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has grown to include not only more diverse viral, bacterial, fungal and protozoan surface components, but also a plethora of endogenous molecules arising from host cell and tissue damage as well as the inflammatory response itself. This flexibility in recognition is accommodated not only by physical and structural features of the TLRs themselves, but also by additional innate immune receptors, soluble molecules and subcellular trafficking mechanisms. These events have begun to reveal a remarkable plasticity and complexity within this critical arm of the host innate immune system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)175-184
Number of pages10
JournalSeminars in Immunology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2009


  • DAMP
  • Innate immunity
  • Lipopeptide
  • Lipopolysaccharide
  • Toll-like receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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