Influence of the concentration of dietary digestible calcium on growth performance, bone mineralization, plasma calcium, and abundance of genes involved in intestinal absorption of calcium in pigs from 11 to 22 kg fed diets with different concentrations of digestible phosphorus

L. Vanessa Lagos, Su A. Lee, Guillermo Fondevila, Carrie L. Walk, Michael R. Murphy, Juan J. Loor, Hans H. Stein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: A 21-day experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that Ca requirements to maximize growth performance expressed as the standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca to STTD P ratio is less than 1.40:1. The second hypothesis was that increasing dietary Ca increases plasma Ca concentration and downregulates abundance of genes related to Ca absorption (TRPV6, S100G, and ATP2B1) in the duodenum, and tight junction proteins (OCLN, CLDN1, and ZO1) in the duodenum and ileum. Methods: Twenty corn-soybean meal diets were formulated using a 4 × 5 factorial design with diets containing 0.16%, 0.33%, 0.42%, or 0.50% STTD P, and 0.14%, 0.29%, 0.44%, 0.59%, or 0.74% STTD Ca. Six hundred and forty pigs (initial weight: 11.1 ± 1.4 kg) were allotted to 20 diets and 5 blocks in a randomized complete block design. On day 21, weights of pigs and feed left in feeders were recorded and blood, duodenal tissue, ileal mucosa, and the right femur were collected from 1 pig per pen. Abundance of mRNA was determined in duodenal and ileal tissue via quantitative RT-PCR. Data were analyzed using a response surface model. Results: The predicted maximum ADG (614 g), G:F (0.65), and bone ash (11.68 g) was obtained at STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 1.39:1, 1.25:1, and 1.66:1, respectively, when STTD P was provided at the requirement (0.33%). If dietary STTD P was below the requirement, increasing dietary Ca resulted in reduced (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F. However, if dietary STTD P was above the requirement, negative effects (P < 0.05) on ADG and G:F of increasing STTD Ca were observed only if dietary STTD Ca exceeded 0.6%. Plasma Ca concentration was positively affected by STTD Ca over the range studied (quadratic, P < 0.01) and negatively affected by increasing STTD P (linear, P < 0.01). There was a linear negative effect (P < 0.05) of STTD Ca on the abundance of S100G, TRPV6, OCLN, and ZO1 in duodenum, and CLDN and ZO1 in ileum. Conclusions: The STTD Ca:STTD P ratio needed to maximize growth performance of 11- to 25-kg pigs is less than 1.40:1, if P is at the estimated requirement. Increasing dietary Ca reduces transcellular absorption of Ca and increases paracellular absorption of Ca.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number47
JournalJournal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 28 2019

Keywords

  • Bone ash
  • Calcium absorption
  • Digestible calcium
  • Growth
  • Pigs
  • Requirement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Biochemistry
  • Animal Science and Zoology

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