Influence of baking conditions and initial flavour load on the evolution of flavours in cookies

Fidele M. Abedi, Nagiat Hwisa, Keith R. Cadwallader, Pawan S. Takhar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study investigates the impact of baking conditions and initial concentrations of flavourings on the evolution of three key flavourings (benzaldehyde, butyl butyryl lactate, and vanillin) in cookies during baking and subsequent storage. Controlled baking experiments were conducted at two temperatures (130°C and 160°C) with varying initial flavouring concentrations. The results reveal that baking at the higher temperature (160°C) led to a substantial loss of benzaldehyde and butyl butyryl lactate, resulting in a significantly lower proportion of these compounds in the final product compared to baking at 130°C. In contrast, vanillin showed greater stability at the higher temperature, with its proportion in the final product remaining stable or increasing compared to the lower temperature. Specifically, the proportion of benzaldehyde decreased from 18.33% in the dough to 4.31% after 2 weeks of storage for cookies baked at 160°C, whereas the proportion of vanillin increased from 47.24% to 61.38% in the same period. Statistical analysis, employing ANOVA and Tukey–Kramer HSD tests, confirmed the significant effect of baking temperature on the evolution of flavour compounds (p < 0.05). These analyses further revealed the notable influence of initial flavouring concentrations on the changes in benzaldehyde across all tested temperatures, as well as on butyl butyryl lactate and vanillin specifically at 130°C. These results offer valuable insights on how the baking process can be optimized to enhance the sensory profile of cookies and highlight the importance of temperature control and initial flavouring mix design.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)181-199
Number of pages19
JournalFlavour and Fragrance Journal
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2024


  • baking
  • cookie
  • flavouring loss
  • flavour–food interactions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • General Chemistry


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