Okmok volcano, located on northeastern Umnak Island along the eastern end of the Aleutian island arc, is one of the most active volcanoes in Alaska, producing multiple eruptions in the past century. The most recent eruption, which occurred during July–August of 2008, was the most explosive since the early nineteenth century. In the years following the 2008 eruption, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations indicate that Okmok has inflated at a variable rate of 40–195 mm/yr. In this study, we investigate the post-eruptive deformation of Okmok (2008–2020) using InSAR and GNSS. L-band ALOS-2, C-band Sentinel-1/Envisat and X-band TerraSAR-X data are analyzed with Persistent Scatterer (PS) InSAR method. The deformation time series calculated from InSAR and GNSS are assimilated into finite element models using the Ensemble Kalman Filter to track the evolution of the magma system through time. The results indicate that the InSAR-derived deformation history can be well explained by a spatially stable magmatic source located in the central caldera, at about 3 km beneath the sea level, which is also believed to be the same source that produced the 1997 and 2008 eruptions. Magma accumulation in the reservoir is about (Formula presented.) from 2008 to 2020, which is about 160% and about 60% of the total reservoir volume changes during the 1997 and the 2008 eruptions, respectively.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geochemistry and Petrology
- Space and Planetary Science
- Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)