Induction of overlapping genes by fasting and a peroxisome proliferator in pigs: Evidence of functional PPARα in nonproliferating species

Yewon Cheon, Takayuki Y. Nara, Mark R. Band, Jonathan E. Beever, Matthew A. Wallig, Manabu T. Nakamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α(PPARα), a key regulator of fatty acid oxidation, is essential for adaptation to fasting in rats and mice. However, physiological functions of PPARα in other species, including humans, are controversial. A group of PPARα ligands called peroxisome proliferators (PPs) causes peroxisome proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis only in rats and mice. To elucidate the role of PPARα in adaptation to fasting in nonproliferating species, we compared gene expressions in pig liver from fasted and clofibric acid (a PP)-fed groups against a control diet-fed group. As in rats and mice, fasting induced genes involved with mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in pigs. Those genes were also induced by clofibric acid feeding, indicating that PPARα mediates the induction of these genes. In contrast to rats and mice, little or no induction of genes for peroxisomal or microsomal fatty acid oxidation was observed in clofibric acid-fed pigs. Histology showed no significant hyperplasia or hepatomegaly in the clofibric acid-fed pigs, whereas it showed a reduction of glycogen by clofibric acid, an effect of PPs also observed in rats. Copy number of PPARα mRNA was higher in pigs than in mice and rats, suggesting that peroxisomal proliferation and hyperresponse of several genes to PPs seen only in rats and mice are unrelated to the abundance of PPARα. In conclusion, PPARα is likely to play a central role in adaptation to fasting in pig liver as in rats and mice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)R1525-R1535
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume288
Issue number6 57-6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2005

Keywords

  • Clofibric acid
  • Fatty acid oxidation
  • Mice
  • Microarray
  • Rats

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

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