Individual and structural determinants of COVID-19 vaccine uptake in a marginalized community in the United States

Jeanna Campbell, Amandeep Kaur, Danilo Gamino, Ellen Benoit, Brianna Amos, Liliane Windsor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Socially and medically vulnerable groups (e.g., people 65 years or older, minoritized racial groups, non-telework essential workers, and people with comorbid conditions) experience barriers to COVID-19 prevention and treatment, increased burden of disease, and increased risk of death from COVID-19. Researchers are paying increased attention to social determinants of health (SDH) in explaining inequities in COVID-19-related health outcomes and rates of vaccine uptake. The purpose of the present manuscript is to identify clinically significant predictors of COVID-19 vaccine uptake among people who were socially and medically vulnerable to SARs-CoV-2 infection. Analysis was informed by the SDH framework and included a sample of 641 baseline surveys from participants in a clinical trial designed to increase COVID-19 testing. All participants were at high risk of developing COVID-19-related complications or dying from COVID-19. Following community-based participatory research principles, a well-established community collaborative board conducted every aspect of the study. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to examine the relationships between individual and structural factors and COVID-19 vaccine uptake. In the final time adjusted model, we found that vaccine uptake was only predicted by specific individual-level factors: being 65 years and older, living with HIV/AIDS, and having previously received a flu vaccine or a COVID-19 test. Those reporting to believe in COVID-19-conspiracy theories were less likely to get the COVID-19 vaccine. More research is needed to identify predictors of vaccine uptake among people with comorbidities that make them more vulnerable to COVID-19 complications or death.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5706-5714
Number of pages9
Issue number39
StatePublished - Sep 7 2023


  • COVID-19
  • Health disparities
  • Health inequities
  • Social determinants of health
  • Vaccine hesitancy
  • Vaccine uptake

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Molecular Medicine
  • General Veterinary


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