Independent component analysis for automatic note extraction from musical trills

Judith C. Brown, Paris Smaragdis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The method of principal component analysis, which is based on second-order statistics (or linear independence), has long been used for redundancy reduction of audio data. The more recent technique of independent component analysis, enforcing much stricter statistical criteria based on higher-order statistical independence, is introduced and shown to be far superior in separating independent musical sources. This theory has been applied to piano trills and a database of trill rates was assembled from experiments with a computer-driven piano, recordings of a professional pianist, and commercially available compact disks. The method of independent component analysis has thus been shown to be an outstanding, effective means of automatically extracting interesting musical information from a sea of redundant data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2295-2306
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Issue number5 I
StatePublished - May 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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