Incomplete professionalization: The case of pharmacy

Norman K. Denzin, Curtis J. Mettlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Sociologists have given a little attention to those occupations which have attempted to become professions, but to some greater or lesser degree have failed. The present paper, employing a Hughesian approach to occupations and work, analyzes pharmacy as an occupation which has taken on some, but not all, of the characteristics commonly ascribed to the professions. Consideration is directed to the factors of recruitment, symbolic social objects, and the achievement of mandate within pharmacy. It is concluded that pharmacy has achieved a state of incomplete professionalization and the similar ties to other occupations such as librarianship, optometry, and chiropractory are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)375-381
Number of pages7
JournalSocial Forces
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 1968

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • History
  • Anthropology
  • Sociology and Political Science


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