Incompatibility of metam sodium with halogenated fumigants

Mingxin Guo, Scott R. Yates, Sharon K. Papiernik, Wei Zheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Metam sodium (metam) is a widely used soil fumigant. Combined application of metam and other available fumigants is intended to produce synergic pesticidal effects for a broad spectrum of pest control in soil fumigation. This study aimed to test the compatibility of metam with the halogenated fumigants 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), chloropicrin, methyl bromide, methyl iodide and propargyl bromide. Halogenated fumigants and metam were spiked simultaneously into organic solvents, water and moist soils, and metam-induced degradation of these halogenated chemicals was evaluated. In all three media, the halogenated fumigants were incompatible with metam and degraded via rapid chemical reactions. The degradation rate varied with halogenated fumigant species and increased as the amount of metam present was increased. In moist soil, 15-95% of the halogenated fumigants were decomposed within 72 h by metam at a 1:1 molar ratio. Combined application of Telone C-35 (62.5% 1,3-D + 35% chloropicrin) at 265 mg kg-1 and Vapam (42% metam) at 567mgkg-1 in soil resulted in complete disappearance of the applied chloropicrin and 20-38% of the 1,3-D within 8 h. The results suggest that simultaneous application of halogenated fumigants and metam at the same soil depth will not maximize pest control. In practice, sequential treatment of soil or application at different soil depths is recommended when these two types of fumigants are used in combination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)467-476
Number of pages10
JournalPest Management Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • 1,3-dichloropropene
  • Chloropicrin
  • Incompatibility
  • Metam
  • Methyl bromide
  • Methyl iodide
  • Propargyl bromide
  • Vapam

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Insect Science


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