Including non-trade concerns: The environment in EU and US agricultural policy

Kathy Baylis, Gordon C. Rausser, Leo K. Simon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The challenge for any trade agreement is to be adaptable enough to enable countries to address legitimate non-trade concerns (NTC) while being restrictive enough to limit harm to other countries and to assist the creation of free international markets. In this paper, we focus on how environmental NTC have been addressed in agricultural policy in the USA and the European Union (EU) and the resulting implications for trade agreements. For example, programmes in the USA discourage production on environmentally sensitive land, while the EU encourages extensive production. While these and other differences will affect production and trade, the different approaches to agri-environmental policy affect the degree to which the two regions can use agri-environmental policy to offset commodity payments. This difference in flexibility will, in turn, affect how easily the two regions can accept a trade agreement that mandates greater reductions in trade-distorting price supports.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)262-276
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Agreement on agriculture
  • Agricultural policy
  • Agricultural trade
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Green-box
  • Multifunctionality
  • Non-trade concerns
  • WTO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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