Inactivation Mechanism and Efficacy of Grape Seed Extract for Human Norovirus Surrogate

Chamteut Oh, Ratul Chowdhury, Laxmicharan Samineni, Joanna L. Shisler, Manish Kumar, Thanh H. Nguyen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Proper disinfection of harvested food and water is critical to minimize infectious disease. Grape seed extract (GSE), a commonly used health supplement, is a mixture of plant-derived polyphenols. Polyphenols possess antimicrobial and antifungal properties, but antiviral effects are not well-known. Here we show that GSE outperformed chemical disinfectants (e.g., free chlorine and peracetic acids) in inactivating Tulane virus, a human norovirus surrogate. GSE induced virus aggregation, a process that correlated with a decrease in virus titers. This aggregation and disinfection were not reversible. Molecular docking simulations indicate that polyphenols potentially formed hydrogen bonds and strong hydrophobic interactions with specific residues in viral capsid proteins. Together, these data suggest that polyphenols physically associate with viral capsid proteins to aggregate viruses as a means to inhibit virus entry into the host cell. Plant-based polyphenols like GSE are an attractive alternative to chemical disinfectants to remove infectious viruses from water or food.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere02247-21
JournalApplied and environmental microbiology
Issue number9
StatePublished - May 2022


  • Tulane virus
  • grape seed extract
  • human norovirus surrogate
  • molecular docking simulations
  • polyphenols
  • virus aggregation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • Food Science
  • Biotechnology
  • Ecology


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