Inactivation kinetics of adenovirus serotype 2 with monochloramine

Kwanrawee Sirikanchana, Joanna L. Shisler, Benito J. Mariñas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The effect of pH (6-10), temperature (10-30 °C), disinfectant concentration (1-11 mg/l as Cl2), and ammonia nitrogen-to-chlorine molar ratio (1.3-52) on the inactivation kinetics of adenovirus serotype 2 with monochloramine was investigated by performing batch-reactor experiments with synthetic 0.01 M buffer (phosphate or borate) solutions. The inactivation kinetics was independent of monochloramine concentration and ammonia nitrogen-to-chlorine molar ratio but had strong pH dependence, with the rate of inactivation decreasing with increasing pH. The kinetics at pH 6 and 8 were consistent with pseudo-first-order kinetics, while curves at pH 10 were characterized by a lag phase followed by a pseudo-first-order phase. The rate of inactivation increased with increasing temperature-activation energies of 56.5 kJ/mole (pH 8) and 72.6 kJ/mole (pH 10). The results obtained in this study revealed that monochloramine disinfection might not generally provide adequate control of adenoviruses in drinking water at high pH and low temperature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1467-1474
Number of pages8
JournalWater Research
Issue number6-7
StatePublished - Mar 2008


  • Adenovirus serotype 2
  • Inactivation kinetics
  • Monochloramine
  • Temperature effect
  • pH effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Ecological Modeling
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution


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