Inactivation Kinetics and Replication Cycle Inhibition of Coxsackievirus B5 by Free Chlorine

Wen Cong, Anisa Pike, Kelley Gonçalves, Joanna L. Shisler, Benito J. Mariñas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The kinetics of coxsackievirus serotype B5 (CVB5) inactivation with free chlorine is characterized over a range of pH and temperature relevant to drinking water treatment with the primary goal of selecting experimental conditions used for assessing inactivation mechanisms. The inactivation kinetics identified in our study is similar to or slower than experimental data reported in the literature and thus provides a conservative representation of the kinetics of CVB5 inactivation for free chlorine that could be useful in developing future regulations for waterborne viral pathogens including adequate disinfection treatment for CVB5. Untreated and free chlorine-treated viruses, and host cells synchronized-infected with these viruses, are analyzed by a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method with the goal of quantitatively investigating the effect of free chlorine exposure on viral genome integrity, attachment to host cell, and viral genome replication. The inactivation kinetics observed results from a combination of hindering virus attachment to the host cell, inhibition of one or more subsequent steps of the replication cycle, and possibly genome damage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18690-18699
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Issue number47
StatePublished - Nov 28 2023


  • Chlorination
  • enterovirus
  • genome integrity damage
  • inactivation kinetics
  • replication cycle
  • water disinfection
  • water treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry


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