In vitro activity of Sorghum bicolor extracts, 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, against Toxoplasma gondii

Daniel A. Abugri, William H. Witola, Jesse M. Jaynes, Nashar Toufic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We investigated dried red leaf extracts of Sorghum bicolor for activity against Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. S. bicolor red leaf extracts were obtained by bioassay-guided fractionation using ethanol and ethyl acetate as solvents. Analysis of the crude and fractionated extracts from S. bicolor using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) showed that they contained significant amounts of apigeninidin, luteolinidin, 7-methoxyapigeninidin, 5-methoxyapigeninidin, 5-methoxyluteolinidin, 7-methoxyluteolinidin 5,7-dimethoxyapigeninidin or 5,7-dimethoxyluteolinidin, based on mass per charge (m/z). When tested in vitro, the IC50s for inhibitory activity against T. gondii tachyzoites' growth of the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts were 2.3- and 4-fold, respectively, lower than their cytotoxic IC50s in mammalian cells. Ethyl acetate extracts fractionated in chloroform-methanol and chloroform had IC50s against T. gondii that were 56.1- and 3-fold lower than their respective cytotoxic IC50s in mammalian cells. These antiparasitic activities were found to be consistent with those of the respective pure 3-deoxyanthocyanidin compounds identified to be contained in the fractions in significant amounts. Further, we observed that, the position and number of methoxy groups possessed by the 3-deoyanthocyanidins influenced their antiparasitic activity. Together, our findings indicate that S. bicolor red-leaf 3-deoxyanthocyanidins-rich extracts have potent in vitro inhibitory activity against the proliferative stage of T. gondii parasites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12-19
Number of pages8
JournalExperimental Parasitology
StatePublished - May 1 2016


  • 3-Deoxyanthocyanidins extracts
  • Antiparasitic compounds
  • Sorghum bicolor
  • Toxoplasma gondii

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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