In situ characterization of twin nucleation in pure Ti using 3D-XRD

Thomas R. Bieler, Leyun Wang, Armand J. Beaudoin, Peter Kenesei, Ulrich Lienert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A small tensile specimen of grade 1 commercially pure titanium was deformed to a few percent strain with concurrent synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements to identify subsurface {10 \bar{1} 1 ̄ 2} twin nucleation events. This sample was from the same piece of material in which a prior study showed that twin nucleation stimulated by slip transfer across a grain boundary accounted for many instances of twin nucleation. The sample had a strong c-axis texture of about eight times random aligned with the tensile axis. After ∼1.5 pct tensile strain, three twin nucleation events were observed in grains where the c-axis was nearly parallel to the tensile direction. Far-field 3-D X-ray diffraction data were analyzed to obtain the positional center of mass, the average lattice strain, and stress tensors in each grain and twin. In one case where the parent grain was mostly surrounded by hard grain orientations, the twin system with the highest resolved shear stress (RSS) among the six {10 \bar{1} 1 ̄ 2} twin variants was activated and the stress in the parent grain decreased after twin nucleation. In two other parent grains with a majority of softer neighboring grain orientations, the observed twins did not occur on the twin system with the highest RSS. Their nucleation could be geometrically attributed to slip transfer from neighboring grains with geometrically favorable 〈a〉 basal slip systems, and the stress in the parent grain increased after twin nucleation. In all three twin events, the stress in the twin was 10 to 30 pct lower than the stress in the parent grain, indicating load partitioning between the hard-oriented parent grain and the soft-oriented twin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)109-122
Number of pages14
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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