In Operando Monitoring of Dynamic Recovery in 3D-Printed Thermoset Nanocomposites by XPCS

Kyle J. Johnson, Lutz Wiegart, Andrew C. Abbott, Elias B. Johnson, Jeffery W. Baur, Hilmar Koerner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Extrusion-based additive manufacturing methods, such as direct-write of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy inks, have become an attractive route toward development of structural composites in recent years, because of emerging techniques such as big area additive manufacturing. The development of improved materials for these methods has been a major focus area; however, an understanding of the effects of the printing process on the structural and dynamic recovery in printed materials remains largely unexplored. The goal of this work is to capture multiscale and temporal morphology and dynamics within thermosetting composite inks to determine the parameters during the printing process that influence the recovery of the printed material. Herein, we use X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy in small-angle scattering geometry to reveal both morphology and recovery dynamics of a nanoparticle (layered-silicate Cloisite 30B) in a thermoset epoxy resin (EPON 826) during the printing process in real time. Our results show that the dynamics of the layered silicate particles during recovery are anisotropic and slow down to behavior which is characteristic of aging in colloidal clay suspensions around tage ≈ 12 s. The dynamics and alignment of the particles during recovery were tempo-spatially mapped, and the recovery post printing was shown to be strongly influenced by the deposition onto the build plate in addition to the extrusion through the print head. Our in operando results provide insight into the parameters that must be considered when optimizing materials and methods for precisely tailored local properties during 3D printing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8758-8768
Number of pages11
Issue number26
StatePublished - Jul 2 2019
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Spectroscopy
  • Electrochemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'In Operando Monitoring of Dynamic Recovery in 3D-Printed Thermoset Nanocomposites by XPCS'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this