The emissions estimates from this study indicate that both traditional and intervention stoves can emit large quantities of CO 2e as products of incomplete combustion, with black carbon contributing up to 37% of the net impact even when all CO 2 is included. The relative CO 2e contributions across stove types, however, vary substantially, highlighting the need to carefully evaluate stove emissions in the field to assess potential climate impacts. Assessment of a wider range of cooking solutions, including clean fuels (e.g. LPG, ethanol, biogas, kerosene, and plant oils), advanced stoves (e.g. forced air, gasifier, TLUD, and pyrolytic), rocket stoves, and others would provide a valuable database of emissions factors, as well as means to compare different stove technologies' performance under realistic conditions. Finally, efforts to better connect laboratory and field performance of stoves would greatly aid efforts in stove design, developing protocols for stove standards, and increasing the overall relevance of stove performance testing.