The quality of physical vapor deposition (PVD) grown barrier/seed interface in Cu interconnect metallization was significantly improved by enhancing Cu nucleation on the Ta barrier surface. This was accomplished through filtering of nonenergetic species from the deposition flux, increasing the fraction of Cu ions, improving metal ion flux uniformity, and minimizing gas ion bombardment of the growing film. The self-sputtering ability of Cu was combined with a magnetically confined high-density plasma in the Novellus hollow cathode magnetron (HCM®) PVD source. Spatial profiles of plasma density and temperature, as well as ion flux, metal ion fraction, and ion energy, were measured by planar Langmuir probes, quartz crystal microbalances, and gridded energy analyzers, all located at the wafer level. Multiple criteria, such as seed step coverage and roughness, the seed layer's resistance to agglomeration, and its stability in the plating bath, have been used to evaluate interface quality. As a result, a new and improved Cu PVD process which demonstrates superior stability during subsequent process steps and ensures successful electrofill performance with a more than 50% reduction in minimal requirement of field thickness as well as sidewall thickness has been developed.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films|
|State||Published - Jul 2011|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films