Improving the performance of GaInP solar cells through rapid thermal annealing and delta doping

Yukun Sun, Brian D. Li, Ryan D. Hool, Shizhao Fan, Mijung Kim, Minjoo Larry Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We show that the effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on carrier lifetime in GaInP grown by molecular beam epitaxy depends strongly on both doping type and density, and that these disparities must be accounted for to realize high-performance GaInP solar cells. Although the photoluminescence intensity and lifetime of lightly doped p- and n-GaInP improved greatly with RTA, heavily doped n+-GaInP showed sharp degradation upon RTA, preventing the realization of GaInP front-junction solar cells with low emitter sheet resistance. Since a low series resistance is important to achieve high fill factor (FF), we designed a front-junction cell utilizing a thin, lightly doped n-type emitter with delta doping to enhance conductivity, attaining an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 1.40 V and FF of 86%. We then designed rear-heterojunction solar cells to further leverage the relatively long lifetime of lightly n-doped GaInP (∼19 ns). With the help of delta doping in the n-AlInP window to improve surface passivation, we attained a VOC of 1.42 V, similar to cells grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number111725
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
StatePublished - Jul 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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