The limited understanding of the interaction between rearing environment of the growing pig and the pig’s microbial community impedes efforts to identify the optimal housing system to maximize animal health and production. Accordingly, we characterized the impact of housing complexity on shaping the respiratory and gut microbiota of growing pig. A total of 175 weaned pigs from 25 litters were randomly assigned within liter to either simple slatted-floor (S) or complex straw-based rearing ecosystem (C). Beside the floor swabs samples, fecal swabs and mucosal scraping samples from bronchus, ileum, and colon were collected approximately 164 days post-weaning at the time of slaughter. The S ecosystem seems to increase the α-diversity of respiratory and gut microbiota. Moreover, the C-raised pigs showed 35.4, 89.2, and 60.0% reduction in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio than the S-raised pigs at bronchus, ileum, and colon, respectively. The unfavorable taxa Psychrobacter, Corynebacterium, Actinobacteria, and Neisseria were the signature taxa of C environment-associated microbial community. Therefore, the microbiota of S-raised pigs seems to show higher density of the most essential and beneficial taxa than the C-raised pigs. We preliminarily conclude that increasing the physical complexity of rearing environment seems to provide suboptimal conditions for establishing a healthy microbial community in the growing pigs.
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