Impact of whey protein hydrolysates on the formation of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine in baked food products

Gustavo Luis Leonardo Scalone, Angelos Gerasimos Ioannidis, Prabin Lamichhane, Frank Devlieghere, Norbert De Kimpe, Keith Cadwallader, Bruno De Meulenaer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Peptides have been reported to serve as precursors in the generation of alkylpyrazines, key aroma compounds in heated foods. Most previous studies, concerned with the generation of pyrazines via the Maillard reaction, were conducted using model systems of varying complexities. However, the formation of pyrazines in real food systems has received less attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of adding protein hydrolysates as precursors for the generation of alkylpyrazines in baked food products such as bread and cookies. Two whey protein hydrolysates, obtained using either trypsin or proteinase from Aspergillus melleus, were used in the presented study. 2,5-Dimethylpyrazine was produced in both food systems. Therefore, its formation was quantitatively monitored using a stable isotope dilution assay. Additionally, sensory evaluation was performed. Results demonstrated that the addition of the protein hydrolysates were effective in promoting the generation of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and other aroma compounds in two well-known food products.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number109089
JournalFood Research International
StatePublished - Jun 2020


  • GPLC
  • Hydrolysates
  • Maillard reaction
  • Peptides
  • Pyrazines
  • Whey protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science


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