Studies have indicated that various societal factors such as toxicant exposure, maternal habits, occupational hazards, psychosocial factors, socioeconomic status, racial disparity, chronic stress, and infection may impact pregnancy outcomes. These outcomes include spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, alterations in the development of the fetus, and long-term health of offspring. Although much is known about individual pregnancy outcomes, little is known about the associations between societal factors and pregnancy outcomes. This manuscript reviews some of the literature available on the effects of the above-mentioned societal factors on pregnancy outcomes and examines some potential remedies for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes in the future.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)349-359
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2008


  • Developmental abnormalities
  • Environmental exposure
  • Pregnancy outcomes
  • Preterm birth
  • Societal factors
  • Spontaneous abortion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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