Impact of Electrical Contacts Design and Materials on the Stability of Ti Superconducting Transition Shape

Volodymyr Yefremenko, Peter A.R. Ade, Zeeshan Ahmed, Adam J. Anderson, Jason E. Austermann, Jessica S. Avva, Robitan Basu Thakur, Amy N. Bender, Bradford A. Benson, John E. Carlstrom, Faustin W. Carter, Thomas Cecil, Clarence L. Chang, Jean Francois Cliche, Ariel Cukierman, Edward V. Denison, Tijmen de Haan, Junjia Ding, Ralu N.S. Divan, Matt A. DobbsDaniel Dutcher, Wenderline Everett, Allen Foster, Renae N. Gannon, Adam Gilbert, John Groh, Nils W. Halverson, Angelina H. Harke-Hosemann, Nicholas L. Harrington, Jason W. Henning, Gene C. Hilton, William L. Holzapfel, Nicholas Huang, Kent D. Irwin, Oliver B. Jeong, Michelle Jonas, Trupti Khaire, Anna M. Kofman, Milo Korman, Donna L. Kubik, Steve Kuhlmann, Chao Lin Kuo, Adrian T. Lee, Amy E. Lowitz, Stephen S. Meyer, Daniel Michalik, Christina Suzanne Miller, Joshua Montgomery, Andrew Nadolski, Tyler J. Natoli, Hogan Nguyen, Gavin Noble, Valentine Novosad, Stephen Padin, Zhaodi Pan, John Pearson, Chrystian M. Posada, Alexandra Rahlin, John E. Ruhl, L. J. Saunders, James T. Sayre, Ian Shirley, Erik D. Shirokoff, Graeme Smecher, Joshua A. Sobrin, Liliana Stan, Antony A. Stark, Kyle T. Story, Aritoki Suzuki, Qing Yang Tang, Keith L. Thompson, Carole E. Tucker, Leila R. Vale, Keith Vanderlinde, Joaquin D. Vieira, Gensheng Wang, Nathan Whitehorn, Ki Won Yoon, Matt Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The South Pole Telescope SPT-3G camera utilizes Ti/Au transition edge sensors (TESs). A key requirement for these sensors is reproducibility and long-term stability of the superconducting (SC) transitions. Here, we discuss the impact of electrical contacts design and materials on the shape of the SC transitions. Using scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope, and optical differential interference contrast microscopy, we observed the presence of unexpected defects of morphological nature on the titanium surface and their evolution in time in proximity to Nb contacts. We found direct correlation between the variations of the morphology and the SC transition shape. Experiments with different diffusion barriers between TES and Nb leads were performed to clarify the origin of this problem. We have demonstrated that the reproducibility of superconducting transitions can be significantly improved by preventing diffusion processes in the TES–leads contact areas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)732-738
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Low Temperature Physics
Issue number5-6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018


  • Bolometer
  • Diffusion
  • Ti films
  • Transition edge sensor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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