Anthocyanins, a subcategory of flavonoids, are red, blue, and purple natural pigments found in a variety of plants. Berries are the most well-known sources, but many other colorful fruits, as well as some vegetables, cereals, and legumes are rich in anthocyanins. There are reports in the scientific literature on the potential health benefits of anthocyanins, such as anti-diabetes, anti-obesity, and anti-cancer effects. In vitro and animal studies have provided a preclinical basis for inhibition of colorectal cancer by anthocyanin-rich foods. Although some positive results have been reported with anthocyanins and colorectal cancer in clinical and epidemiological studies, still existing inconsistencies need to be investigated. The purpose of this chapter is to review in vitro, animal, clinical, and epidemiological studies on anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich foods and colorectal cancer and to discuss the gap in knowledge to encourage new research that could result in promising clinical outcomes.