Immune-Mediated Central Nervous System Disease—Current Knowledge and Recommendations

Samantha Vitale, Kari Foss

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Immune-mediated inflammation is responsible for about 25% of central nervous system disease in dogs. The disease can affect all ages and breeds, but young to middle-aged small breed dogs are over-represented for most forms. Diagnosis consists of advanced imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and infectious disease testing, but biopsy is required for definitive diagnosis and classification of the disease into one of the many subtypes. Treatment consists of immunosuppressive medication with the goal being to control and/or improve clinical signs. Current literature shows that prognosis is variable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)22-29
Number of pages8
JournalTopics in Companion Animal Medicine
StatePublished - Mar 2019


  • granulomatous meningoencephalitis
  • meningitis
  • meningoencephalitis
  • meningomyelitis
  • necrotizing leukoencephalitis
  • necrotizing meningoencephalitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals


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