Image overlay solution based on threshold detection for a compact near infrared fluorescence goggle system

Shengkui Gao, Suman B. Mondal, Nan Zhu, Rongguang Liang, Samuel Achilefu, Viktor Gruev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has shown great potential for various clinical procedures, including intraoperative image guidance. However, existing NIR fluorescence imaging systems either have a large footprint or are handheld, which limits their usage in intraoperative applications. We present a compact NIR fluorescence imaging system (NFIS) with an image overlay solution based on threshold detection, which can be easily integrated with a goggle display system for intraoperative guidance. The proposed NFIS achieves compactness, light weight, hands-free operation, high-precision superimposition, and a real-time frame rate. In addition, the miniature and ultra-lightweight light-emitting diode tracking pod is easy to incorporate with NIR fluorescence imaging. Based on experimental evaluation, the proposed NFIS solution has a lower detection limit of 25 nM of indocyanine green at 27 fps and realizes a highly precise image overlay of NIR and visible images of mice in vivo. The overlay error is limited within a 2-mm scale at a 65-cm working distance, which is highly reliable for clinical study and surgical use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number016018
JournalJournal of biomedical optics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • complementary metal-oxide semiconductor imaging sensor
  • head-mounted display goggle
  • image guided surgery
  • image overlay
  • near infrared fluorescence
  • threshold detection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering


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