Identifying acoustic scattering sources in normal renal parenchyma from the anisotropy in acoustic properties

Michael F. Insana, Timothy J. Hall, James L. Fishback

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Acoustical and histological properties of dog kidney parenchyma are examined in vitro to determine sources of acoustic scattering in the normal kidney. The speed of sound, attenuation, backscatter, effective scatterer size and scattering strength were measured within the frequency range 1-15 MHz and at eight angles of incidence with respect to the predominant nephron orientation. Significant angular dependence, or anisotropy, was observed in backscatter coefficient and scattering strength estimates; attenuation was found to be weakly anisotiopic. All three parameters, each measured at 19°C, exhibited values that were maximum for perpendicular incidence and minimum for parallel incidence. Speed of sound and scatterer size estimates were observed to be independent of scanning angle. Comparisons between these data for renal cortex and histological observations suggest that the glomerulus is the principal scatterer at low frequencies, and renal tubules and blood vessels at high frequencies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)613-626
Number of pages14
JournalUltrasound in Medicine and Biology
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1991
Externally publishedYes


  • Anisotropy
  • Attenuation
  • Backscatter
  • Correlation function
  • Kidney
  • Microscopic Anatomy
  • Scatterer size
  • Scattering models
  • Scattering strength
  • Speed of sound
  • Tissue characterization
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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