Identification of Important Aroma Components and Sensory Profiles of Minimally Processed (Unroasted) and Conventionally Roasted Dark Chocolates

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Roasting is an important unit operation for the development of characteristic chocolate aroma during manufacturing. However, there is an increase in interest in minimally processed chocolate products due to their potential positive health benefits. The odor-important compounds and sensory characteristics of minimally processed (unroasted) and conventionally roasted dark chocolates were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), and stable isotope dilution analysis (SIDA). Except for acetic acid, all odorants had higher odor-activity values (OAVs) in roasted chocolate. Acetic acid, developed during fermentation and drying, had the highest OAV in both chocolates but was better preserved in unroasted chocolate. Compounds making a greater aroma impact on roasted chocolate compared with unroasted chocolate included dimethyl trisulfide, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 3-methylbutanal. Nine significant sensory attributes in unroasted and roasted chocolates were identified. Vinegar (aroma) and roasted (aroma and aroma by mouth), sweet (taste), and hardness (texture) attributes differed between unroasted and roasted chocolates. The results of this study enforce the embracement of low thermal processes to showcase the inherent flavor potential of cacao beans but also to support the concept of chocolate “terroir” by potentially preserving important aroma compounds developed during fermentation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9856-9867
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number25
StatePublished - Jun 28 2023


  • aroma extract dilution analysis
  • dark chocolate
  • descriptive analysis
  • minimally processed
  • odor-activity value
  • stable isotope dilution analysis
  • unroasted chocolate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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