Mate (Ilex paraguariensis), native to South America, has been used for centuries by the South American Indians as a source for a tonic and a stimulating drink, and recent discoveries have associated its phenolic content with the inhibition of tumor growth. Despite the health promoting properties of Mate tea, its characteristic flavor is still not well-characterized. Three types of mate tea imported from Argentina were selected based on levels of polyphenolic compounds, agronomic factors, and flavor characteristics (strong, medium, and weak flavor) determined by habitual Mate tea drinkers. Volatiles from hot water-infusions (brews) prepared from dried tea leaves were isolated by dynamic headspace analysis (DHA), solvent-assisted flavor evaporation-solvent extraction (SAFE-SE), and column adsorption extraction. Aroma-active components were identified by gas chromatographyolfactometry (GCO) and GC-MS. Predominant aroma components of Mate tea included geraniol, β-damascenone, 2-methoxyphenol, linalool, β-ionone, eugenol, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, (E,Z) 2,6-nonadienal, and geranial. Aroma components of Mate tea are produced by lipoxygenase action and degradation reactions occurring during manufacture of the dried tea leaves.