HYSCORE and QM/MM Studies of Second Sphere Variants of the Type 1 Copper Site in Azurin: Influence of Mutations on the Hyperfine Couplings of Remote Nitrogens

Quan Lam, Casey Van Stappen, Yi Lu, Sergei A. Dikanov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Secondary coordination sphere (SCS) interactions have been shown to play important roles in tuning reduction potentials and electron transfer (ET) properties of the Type 1 copper proteins, but the precise roles of these interactions are not fully understood. In this work, we examined the influence of F114P, F114N, and N47S mutations in the SCS on the electronic structure of the T1 copper center in azurin (Az) by studying the hyperfine couplings of (i) histidine remote Nϵ nitrogens and (ii) the amide Np using the two-dimensional (2D) pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique HYSCORE (hyperfine sublevel correlation) combined with quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) and DLPNO-CCSD calculations. Our data show that some components of hyperfine tensor and isotropic coupling in N47SAz and F114PAz (but not F114NAz) deviate by up to ∼±20% from WTAz, indicating that these mutations significantly influence the spin density distribution between the CuII site and coordinating ligands. Furthermore, our calculations support the assignment of Np to the backbone amide of residue 47 (both in Asn and Ser variants). Since the spin density distributions play an important role in tuning the covalency of the Cu-Scys bond of Type 1 copper center that has been shown to be crucial in controlling the reduction potentials, this study provides additional insights into the electron spin factor in tuning the reduction potentials and ET properties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3350-3359
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry B
Volume128
Issue number14
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 11 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry

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