Hydrodynamic simulations in [Formula Presented] general relativity

Matthew D. Duez, Pedro Marronetti, Stuart L. Shapiro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We solve Einstein’s field equations coupled to relativistic hydrodynamics in full (Formula presented) general relativity to evolve astrophysical systems characterized by strong gravitational fields. We model rotating, collapsing and binary stars by idealized polytropic equations of state, with neutron stars as the main application. Our scheme is based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the field equations. We assume adiabatic flow, but allow for the formation of shocks. We determine the appearance of black holes by means of an apparent horizon finder. We introduce several new techniques for integrating the coupled Einstein-hydrodynamics system. For example, we choose our fluid variables so that they can be evolved without employing an artificial atmosphere. We also demonstrate the utility of working in a rotating coordinate system for some problems. We use rotating stars to experiment with several gauge choices for the lapse function and shift vector, and find some choices to be superior to others. We demonstrate the ability of our code to follow a rotating star that collapses from large radius to a black hole. Finally, we exploit rotating coordinates to evolve a corotating binary neutron star system in a quasiequilibrium circular orbit for more than two orbital periods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalPhysical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 13 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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