Human T Cells Expressing a CD19 CAR-T Receptor Provide Insights into Mechanisms of Human CD19-Positive β Cell Destruction

Haiting Ma, Jacob F. Jeppesen, Rudolf Jaenisch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells underlies type 1 diabetes (T1D). To understand T cell-mediated immune effects on human pancreatic β cells, we combine β cell-specific expression of a model antigen, CD19, and anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells. Coculturing CD19-expressing β-like cells and CD19 CAR-T cells results in T cell-mediated β-like cell death with release of activated T cell cytokines. Transcriptome analysis of β-like cells and human islets treated with conditioned medium of the immune reaction identifies upregulation of immune reaction genes and the pyroptosis mediator GSDMD as well as its activator CASP4. Caspase-4-mediated cleaved GSDMD is detected in β-like cells under inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions. Among immune-regulatory genes, PDL1 is one of the most upregulated, and PDL1 overexpression partially protects human β-like cells transplanted into mice. This experimental platform identifies potential mechanisms of β cell destruction and may allow testing of therapeutic strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100097
JournalCell Reports Medicine
Volume1
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 22 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • autoimmune diabetes
  • CAR-T cells
  • chimeric mice
  • human pluripotent stem cells
  • inflammation
  • pancreatic beta cells
  • pyroptosis
  • regenerative medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology

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