Human Perception-Optimized Planning for Comfortable VR-Based Telepresence

Israel Becerra, Markku Suomalainen, Eliezer Lozano, Katherine J. Mimnaugh, Rafael Murrieta-Cid, Steven M. Lavalle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This letter introduces an emerging motion planning problem by considering a human that is immersed into the viewing perspective of a remote robot. The challenge is to make the experience both effective (such as delivering a sense of presence), and comfortable (such as avoiding adverse sickness symptoms, including nausea). We refer this challenging new area as human perception-optimized planning, and propose a general multiobjective optimization framework that can be instantiated in many envisioned scenarios. We then consider a specific VR telepresence task as a case of human perception-optimized planning, in which we simulate a robot that sends 360 video to a remote user to be viewed through a head-mounted display. In this particular task, we plan trajectories that minimize VR sickness (and thereby maximize comfort). An A∗ type method is used to create a Pareto-optimal collection of piecewise linear trajectories while taking into account criteria that improve comfort. We conducted a study with human subjects touring a virtual museum, in which paths computed by our algorithm are compared against a reference RRT-based trajectory. Generally, users suffered less from VR sickness, and preferred the paths created by the presented algorithm.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9162461
Pages (from-to)6489-6496
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Motion and path planning
  • human factors
  • human-centered robotics
  • telepresence
  • virtual reality and interfaces

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Control and Optimization
  • Artificial Intelligence


Dive into the research topics of 'Human Perception-Optimized Planning for Comfortable VR-Based Telepresence'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this