Chronic exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts has been linked to adverse health risks. The monohaloacetic acids (monoHAAs) are generated as byproducts during the disinfection of drinking water and are cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. Iodoacetic acid toxicity was mitigated by antioxidants, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress. Other monoHAAs may share a similar mode of action. Each monoHAA generated a significant concentration-response increase in the expression of a β-lactamase reporter under the control of the antioxidant response element (ARE). The monoHAAs generated oxidative stress with a rank order of iodoacetic acid (IAA) > bromoacetic acid (BAA) > chloroacetic acid (CAA); this rank order was observed with other toxicological end points. Toxicogenomic analysis was conducted with a nontransformed human intestinal epithelial cell line (FHs 74 Int). Exposure to the monoHAAs altered the transcription levels of multiple oxidative stress responsive genes, indicating that each exposure generated oxidative stress. The transcriptome profiles showed an increase in thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) and sulfiredoxin (SRXN1), suggesting peroxiredoxin proteins had been oxidized during monoHAA exposures. Three possible sources of reactive oxygen species were identified, the hypohalous acid generating peroxidase enzymes lactoperoxidase (LPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent oxidase 5 (NOX5), and PTGS2 (COX-2) mediated arachidonic acid metabolism. Each monoHAA exposure caused an increase in COX-2 mRNA levels. These data provide a functional association between monoHAA exposure and adverse health outcomes such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry