This study reviews the methods and measurements employed in research using the Persuasion Knowledge Model (Friestad and Wright 1994) across leading journals in advertising and associated fields from 1994-2014. Despite the recommendation from Friestad and Wright to use multiple methods, the dominant methods are experimental and survey, with few qualitative approaches. Although no one standard measure of persuasion knowledge exists, there appear to be reliable and valid scales to measure dispositional persuasion knowledge. There are also situational measures, mostly created or modified by researchers for particular persuasion contexts. Children’s persuasion knowledge is assessed through unique audience-specific methods designed for children. Overall, most scholars measure subjective persuasion knowledge with explicit (conscious) assessments to gauge short-term effects. Our systematic review provides scale items and reveals opportunities to develop reliable scales related to other aspects of persuasion knowledge (e.g., appropriateness, perceived effectiveness, coping behaviors, and agents’ perspectives).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-53
Number of pages37
JournalInternational Journal of Advertising
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 9 2015


  • Measurement
  • Persuasion knowledge
  • Review
  • Scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Communication
  • Marketing


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