Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism: Implications for Understanding Psychological Processes

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter reviews findings that support a horizontal-vertical distinction within the broader categories of individualism and collectivism. The chapter highlights several sources of value for this distinction-as a predictor of new phenomena not anticipated by a focus on individualism and collectivism, and as a basis for refining the understanding of existing phenomena linked to individualism and collectivism. This chapter describes the horizontal-vertical distinction and its measurement, and review several lines of research in which it contributes to predicting the role of culture in shaping perceptions, motives, values, and social relations. Coverage is structured around a core set of questions: Who am I and what do I value? How should I present myself to others? How do I perceivethe social environment? This chapter closes by discussing implications for understanding consumer psychology, and future directions for research on the horizontal-vertical distinction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvances in Culture and Psychology
EditorsMichele J Gelfand, Chi-yue Chiu, Ying-yi Hong
PublisherOxford University Press
ISBN (Electronic)9780199863501
ISBN (Print)0195380398, 9780195380392
StatePublished - Dec 24 2010


  • Consumer psychology
  • Horizontal-vertical distinction
  • Individualism-collectivism
  • Self-presentation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


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