Holland's RIASEC Model as an Integrative Framework for Individual Differences

Patrick Ian Armstrong, Susan X. Day, Jason P. McVay, James Rounds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Using data from published sources, the authors investigated J. L. Holland's (1959, 1997) theory of interest types as an integrative framework for organizing individual differences variables that are used in counseling psychology. Holland's interest types were used to specify 2- and 3-dimensional interest structures. In Study 1, measures of individual characteristics and, in Study 2, measures of environmental demands were successfully integrated into a 2-dimensional circumplex interest structure using the technique of property vector fitting. In Study 3, cognitive abilities were successfully integrated into a 3-dimensional interest structure. Obtained results illustrate the potential utility of interest-based structures for integrating a wide range of information. This represents a 1st step toward the development of an Atlas of Individual Differences, mapping the interrelations among individual-differences measures to facilitate their integrative use in career counseling and other applied settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Counseling Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2008


  • ability requirements
  • Atlas of Individual Differences
  • Holland's RIASEC types
  • interests
  • personality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Clinical Psychology


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