Highly Efficient Solar Water Splitting from Transferred TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

In Sun Cho, Jongmin Choi, Kan Zhang, Sung June Kim, Myung Jin Jeong, Lili Cai, Taiho Park, Xiaolin Zheng, Jong Hyeok Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We report a synergistic effect of flame and chemical reduction methods to maximize the efficiency of solar water splitting in transferred TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate. The flame reduction method (>1000 °C) leads to few oxygen vacancies in the anatase TNT arrays, but it exhibits unique advantages for excellent interfacial characteristics between transferred TNT arrays and TCO substrates, which subsequently induce a cathodic on-set potential shift and sharp photocurrent evolution. By contrast, the employed chemical reduction method for TNT arrays/TCO gives rise to an abrupt increase in photocurrent density, which results from the efficient formation of oxygen vacancies in the anatase TiO2 phase, but a decrease in charge transport efficiency with increasing chemical reduction time. We show that flame reduction followed by chemical reduction could significantly improve the saturation photocurrent density and interfacial property of TNT arrays/TCO photoanodes simultaneously without mechanical fracture via the synergistic effects of coreducing methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5709-5715
Number of pages7
JournalNano letters
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 9 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • TiO nanotubes
  • chemical reduction
  • flame reduction
  • photoelectrochemical water splitting
  • synergistic effects
  • transfer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering


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