High throughput sequencing and comparative genomics of foot-and-mouth disease virus

C. Carrillo, E. R. Tulman, G. Delhon, Z. Lu, A. Carreno, A. Vagnozzi, G. F. Kutish, D. L. Rock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Despite a basic understanding of many aspects of FMD biology, much information regarding FMDV virulence, host range, and virus transmission remains poorly understood. Here we present how the use of high throughput sequencing for complete genome sequences of foot-and mouth disease virus (FMDV) led to a series of new insights into viral genome sequence conservation and variability, genetic diversity in nature and phylogenetic classification of isolates, including the first complete sequences of the South African Territories type 1 and 3 (SAT1 and SAT3) genomes. Comparative genomic analysis of full-length sequences of FMDV isolates did allow: (i) the identification of highly conserved regulatory or coding regions which are critical for aspects of virus biology as well as novel viral genomic motifs with likely biological relevance; (ii) characterization of the first complete sequences of the SAT1 and SAT3 genomes; (iii) identification of a novel SAT virus lineage genetically distinct from other SAT and Euro-Asiatic lineages; (iv) precise identification of strains circulating around the world for epidemiological and forensic attribution; (v) assessment of mutation and recombination processes as mechanisms equally involved in evolution; (vi) mutation rates, tolerance and constraints of genes and proteins during evolution of FMD viruses during in vivo replication and (vi) support for the hypothesis of a new evolutionary model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23-30
Number of pages8
JournalDevelopments in Biologicals
StatePublished - 2006
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology


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