High-Performance Carbon Nanotube Complementary Logic with End-Bonded Contacts

Jianshi Tang, Qing Cao, Damon B. Farmer, George Tulevski, Shu Jen Han

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Carbon nanotube (CNT) has been envisioned as a promising channel replacement for silicon in sub-5 nm logic technology nodes. Successful implementation of CNT-based CMOS technology requires high-quality low-resistance contacts for both ${p}$ - and ${n}$ -type field-effect transistors (PFETs and NFETs) that can be scaled down to sub-10 nm size. End-bonded contact schemes potentially provide the solution for ultrascaled contacts to CNTs with their low and size-independent contact resistances. In this paper, we report a new form of end-bonded metal contacts made by carbon dissolution into metal contacts with high carbon solubility (e.g., Ni and Co). This new approach requires low annealing temperature (400 °C-600 °C) and maintains metal integrity post contact formation, which has been the major issue in previous metal carbide-based demonstrations where typically >900 °C annealing is required. The end-bonded Ni contacts serve as robust ${p}$ -type contacts to CNTs, and perform better than standard side-bonded Pd contacts at scaled dimensions. In addition, for the first time, we demonstrate CMOS logic with end-bonded Ni contacts, featuring the smallest reported contact size thus far for CNT inverters. These findings could pave the way to realizing CNT-based scalable CMOS technology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7906511
Pages (from-to)2744-2750
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • CMOS logic
  • Carbon nanotube (CNT)
  • end-bonded contact
  • n-type field-effect transistors (NFET)
  • nickel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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