High-frame-rate Doppler ultrasound using a repeated transmit sequence

Anthony S. Podkowa, Michael L. Oelze, Jeffrey A. Ketterling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The maximum detectable velocity of high-frame-rate color flow Doppler ultrasound is limited by the imaging frame rate when using coherent compounding techniques. Traditionally, high quality ultrasonic images are produced at a high frame rate via coherent compounding of steered plane wave reconstructions. However, this compounding operation results in an effective downsampling of the slow-time signal, thereby artificially reducing the frame rate. To alleviate this effect, a new transmit sequence is introduced where each transmit angle is repeated in succession. This transmit sequence allows for direct comparison between low resolution, pre-compounded frames at a short time interval in ways that are resistent to sidelobe motion. Use of this transmit sequence increases the maximum detectable velocity by a scale factor of the transmit sequence length. The performance of this new transmit sequence was evaluated using a rotating cylindrical phantom and compared with traditional methods using a 15-MHz linear array transducer. Axial velocity estimates were recorded for a range of ±300 mm/s and compared to the known ground truth. Using these new techniques, the root mean square error was reduced from over 400 mm/s to below 50 mm/s in the high-velocity regime compared to traditional techniques. The standard deviation of the velocity estimate in the same velocity range was reduced from 250 mm/s to 30 mm/s. This result demonstrates the viability of the repeated transmit sequence methods in detecting and quantifying high-velocity flow.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number227
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2018


  • Color flow doppler
  • High-frequency ultrasound
  • Multirate signal processing
  • Nyquist velocity
  • Plane-wave imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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